Is the art of textile printing most represents us. It is the best known and probably the favorite of both companies and designers. spectacular results are achieved. Screen printing on paper and textiles have a very similar operation.
The textile printing is an ancient technique that, although nowadays is assisted by machines, no longer a traditional process. Without going any further, our specialists have to tweak the design to fit to create imagesetters and screens, hand carry the colors and you have to sheathe one to one tees, and much else besides.
What is serigraphy?
Serigraphy or screen printing is a method of reproduction of text and images on almost all materials, which consists of transferring ink through a mesh or silk nylons, which is mounted and stretched over a frame or frame of wood or metal.
The passage of the ink blocking areas where there is no image or text using an emulsion or shellac varnish-like, being free the area where the ink will.
The frame with the mesh stretched ready with text or image to be printed is placed on top of the piece to be printed and the ink is passed through it, applying moderate pressure with a scraper or rubber squeegee generally.
What is needed for serigraphy?
The 3 main elements involved in the process are the photoliths (imagesetters), screens and inks. This trident is what determines the technical costs. Many more colors design, more imagesetters, screens and inks come into play.
The process begins by performing the screen printing imagesetters. Designs and color are separated from each one fotolito opaque black ink on a transparent acetate with our special high definition plotter prints. In this way we will have the basis for creating screens for each color.
Is a delicate process that requires extensive experience to get the best result on the screens. If a fotolito not have sufficient quality and does not care the details we can get a low quality printing. Is essential that the ink is completely opaque so they do not miss the light when the process begins sunshine.
The quality and level of the quality mark definition screens and therefore of stamping. Therefore it is very important to have a good quality design.
It is a complicated process: heat stroke screens. screens with a photosensitive emulsion on the mesh cover. Being sensitive to light must work only red light and photo labs.
photolithography and screen are block and through a insoladora a source of very powerful light is applied. When the emulsion is contacted with light solidifies, leaving all the solidified mesh, less dull side of photolithography. To finish the design of the water is removed and we have the list screen. The solid part of the mesh block passage of the ink, which only pass through the area of the design.
To make custom screen or any other garment high quality inks are used respectful to the environment shirts. They are plastisol without phthalates (harmful substances they used years ago used in screen printing).
For printing the Pantone U range usually used as a color code. Although there are no exact Pantone, textile, our specialists try to close as possible, working with a fidelity of 98%. It is a traditional process, as if it were a recipe.
How is it performed?
As a first step should be an adequate textile support to the task, depending on the final resolution of the pattern, for example, to print a poster should be used muslin, with approximately 20 threads, or a tiny picture is desired used synthetic silk screen printing, because it has more than 100 threads and thus be smaller holes.
The preparation of the frame is very similar to the preparation of canvases for oil painting. It muslin or silk screen printing frame wooden or metal frame tense, considering that the textile surface should be tensioned until it creased, but at the time of printing does not tear. Usually staples it is holding the wooden frame of a tuning point at a time and crosswise, this in order that the voltage is flush on all corners.
Can be made from different materials, until recently were made with a sheet of clear acetate which was painted with marker or ink, another method was to copy in clear acetate, currently performed by thermal printers designed exclusively for this purpose and using exclusive high quality film or conventional printers on the common bond paper, 75 grams, which is painted on the reverse with almond oil, this makes the paper becomes transparent and allows the burning of the plate.
There are various emulsions on the market, depending on the ink that is printed, the most common is the emulsion fotoserigame blue color, which is used for printing with water-based inks and benzene-based (mineral spirit) there is also the red emulsion for printing with PVC-based inks, this is not resistant to water-based inks, these emulsions are activated with ammonium dichromate.
To make the printing plates must be done in darkness or twilight, or using safety lamps.
Is added to the emulsion dichromate ammonia in the amount declared by the manufacturer, they are usually a few drops, remember that these materials are sensitive, it is best to store them in a dark or in plastic bags in black site, once prepared the emulsion is spread evenly with a channel or a spatula on the frame with stressed silk and allowed to dry in a dark or with the aid of a hair dryer site, once dried, the emulsion becomes somewhat transparent.
To burn the plates a light source, usually a drawing board for tracing the emulsion reacts depending on the amount of light so it is important to test to determine the exposure time, usually for a drawing board it is used is exposed for no more than one minute, you can also use the focus of a room, it should be exposed for approximately 20 minutes or use lamps drawer built for this purpose, with several fluorescent lamps.
Taking the frame with the fotolito dried emulsion, also called art, made under it is located, the goal is to make the black parts of fotolito not to miss the light to certain parts of the coated silk, therefore, in these parts the emulsion will not be cured and may be subsequently washed, keep in mind that there must be no space between the photolithography and iron, for this book or anything that press on fotolitos silk are used.
After exposure of the plate proceeds to reveal, at this time you can leave the darkroom into a sink, gently silk by hand or with a brush rubs the parties that were not exposed to light is easily diluted leaving the silk white, do not rub a lot because all of the emulsion will fall. Should parts of the iron do not reveal is because the iron was overexposed, otherwise if the entire sheet is blank, it is because it was underexposed and needed more time to react.
What is this applied for?
In ancient decals applied in everyday items, dishes, glasses, etc. are made
In Europe it was used to print fabrics, as “lions printing” was called for being the place where this system is applied. France was the painter Toulouse Lautrec which the posters used for the Moulin Rouge.
All this technique is done by hand, so it had to draw first on the canvas, but this has been relegated to art. It is in the United States, and with the rise of photography and chemicals, where he takes a dramatic boost, and it is to this day that you look to where items will be made in screen printing:
- The printing process is used to make reproductions of art and advertising; in the reproduction of works of art, paintings, drawings, posters, etc.
- In the printing on fabrics, shirts, dresses, fabrics, ties, sports equipment, footwear, canvas, and all kinds of clothes.
- In printing plastic. Canopies, panels, decorative items, signage and marking plates, control panels, etc.
- In the printing of wood and cork, for decorative elements, doors, furniture, panels, etc.
- In the printing of stickers and labels. Stickers water and dry labels in complex or self-adhesive materials (paper and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)), enamels for decorating tiles, glass and ceramic decals.
- Decoration glass and mirror material for all types of slot machines and gaming, and for cylindrical jars, bottles, containers, syringes, vials, containers, etc.
- For flocking of all kinds of materials, in this case the adhesive is also applied by screen printing.
- In the production of large format mural signage, outdoor advertising billboards, the resistance to UV inks.
- In all kinds of materials for window dressing, counters, cabinets, shop interiors, and in any scale, Promotional items decor.
- Direct decorated by enamels and glazes clay, ceramic, porcelain, etc.
- Tags aluminum, cardboard, leather, fabrics, etc.
- Production of printed circuits.
- Cork and wood decor.
- Labeling and labeling conveyors for automotive vehicles.
- Printing covers for folders, books, etc.
- Printing marketers items. Key rings, etc.
he screen printing can be detected by each color has a certain significance, and the outlines of images tracing, as texts, if we increase, appear with a shape that resembles the teeth of a saw.
It would be difficult to reach a full detail of all of them, and continuously evolving precisely because its applicability in any medium.
Examples of techniques for textile screen printing are: Color selection (full color printing on the garment, either light or dark backgrounds), Discharge printing: For corrosion color of the garment, Foil: Using metallized paper sheets , high Density (HD): Screen printing of high relief, they can be applied also combining the metallic foil; Glitters, glitter, frost and glitter effects, Flock: offering like velvet finish, etc.
Every day companies engaged in the textile industry, requiring manufacturers of screen inks, exploring new techniques, inventing or renew them, to always offer something innovative to the market.
Need more information?
If you want to know more about how we make our processes of serigraphy and the spectacular results we offer, please contact us.